Age stages of child development from birth to one year
Human development begins from the moment of conception. It is a continuous process that takes the rest of his life. Its distinguishing feature is the unevenness, when the periods of accelerated growth of the child give way to slow. Information months about the stages of child development to the year will allow young mothers to adequately assess the state of the baby and in time to notice the problem.
The stages of child development up to year months
During the first months of life the child's body has to go through adaptation to new conditions of existence, acquire a lot of skills to establish the functioning of the basic systems. For the first year of life children make huge way, the learning rate which now will never happen again ever in my life.
Assessing the child's development, you need a few indicators:
- the number of teeth;
- the parameters of the body;
- purchased functions.
The period of breastfeeding, which in most cases lasts just under 1 year itemized by month. It should be a consistent process without deviation from the basic natural processes.
- 1 month – newborns are born with a body length of 50-55 cm and a weight of 3-3. 8 kg. Is the average, boys are usually 2-3 cm longer than girls. The child does not possess many functions of the body, but has some reflexes: sucking, grasping, and others. Most of the time takes a NAP. To unpleasant stimuli the infant responds to loud cry.
- 2 a month is the baby able to hold head up for 10 seconds, recognizes mother's voice, smiles at her. The baby is actively COO, looks over the items, trying to keep them. He is gaining 700-800 grams weight, becoming more emotional.
- 3 months – the child holds her head, lying on his stomach, rests on the forearm. By this time he should be able to roll from back to side. The baby requires more communication, exploring the world, trying out a diaper or toys. His daytime sleep becomes shorter and night longer.
- 4 month a baby shows a personality, he gets his favorite toys and nursery rhymes. He turns, holds a rattle or reaching for her. From pleasant experiences, the child laughs.
- 5 month the baby develops the ability to rely on the legs, limb movements become more coordinated. He learns the loved ones and is afraid of strangers, responds to tone of voice.
- 6 month – child is visibly growing and his growth is on average about 70 cm, weight up to 8 kg. He learned to sit, to shift toys, ask for pens. Baby babble reminds words "BA-BA", "mA-mA".
- 7-8 month the children are beginning to crawl, to stand, holding onto a support. They learn to play with simple objects to push the ball, remove the cover, wear rings and pyramids. The child can learn numbers, animal names and show familiar objects. In this age, many children enjoy dancing.
- 9-10 months – improved systems and functions, the child is able to focus, not only to keep, but throw items. The child sits and crawls, learns to walk with support.
- 11-12 month – for this period most children begin to walk independently. In speech there is a set of simple words, the kids to children. They study each other. One year old baby imitates gestures and actions of adults, repeating different sounds. He is able to wear some of the things he eats and drinks from a Cup. To construction year vocabulary of 10-15 words. If your child has not gone without support or bad says it is not a reason for worries. Under normal physical development it will soon catch up with their peers.
Stages of speech development in children
Like many skills, the emergence of speech requires a phased development. Age of manifestation of speech noticeable after 3 months when the baby is actively "agukaet". By the end of the first half he says a few syllables. To year in the Arsenal of the child some words associated with defined objects. Not always these words are pronounced clearly, while they are closer to the babble. In the initial stages in children always present correctly and incorrectly spoken words.
To 2 years the child's vocabulary reaches 50-100 words, short sentences appear. To 3 years a child begins to ask questions, to 4 – in his speech appear complex sentences. The main indicator of the normal development of speech is not the correct pronunciation of words, and the ability to build them. The rapid expansion of vocabulary often does not give time baby learn the correct pronunciation of words. To this should be treated calmly, articulation device of the child is not sufficiently developed.
Language development facilitates the dialogue, so pay attention to communication with the baby.
Age stages of child development
The process of child development is divided into two main stages: prenatal, and intrauterine or extrauterine. They cover the period from conception to puberty.
This long path was divided into several ranges (stages):
- prenatal – about 38 weeks from conception to birth;
- newborn 0 to 1 month;
- infancy – up to 1 year;
- early childhood – 1 to 3 years;
- preschoolers – 3 to 7 years;
- primary school age 7-12 years;
- adolescence or puberty is from 12 to 17-18 years.
The prenatal period is a base, forming the internal organs. Proper nutrition and lifestyle of the mother have a significant influence on the development of the little man.
The prenatal stage is divided into three stages:
- zygote – 2 weeks in this period intensively fertilized egg divides, creating an embryo;
- embryonic – up to 8 weeks, at this stage the organs and systems of the baby starts beating his heart;
- the fetal stage is from 9 to 40 weeks, the fetus is actively growing, increasing in size, all systems preparing for independent living.
By the time of birth a baby can respond to stimuli, to distinguish voice, to feel the taste and touch. Some traits of the child are laid at this time, so it is important to contact the mother and the baby.
The newborn in the first minutes of extrauterine life have to adapt to new unusual conditions of life. It is attacked by the aggressive environmental factors. Resilience provides immunity of the newborn breastfeeding. The kid still can't control your body, care for it falls squarely on the parents.
The first year of a child's life involves learning, he learns to sit, crawl, walk, interact with the outside world. Age-related changes are accompanied by intensive growth to the end of the first year the body weight is increased in 2 times, and a growth of 50%. For the full development of the baby requires nutrition and healthy food. By 10-11 months, infants formed the beginnings of speech, they are not just "agecat", 5-8 and pronounce simple words.
Early childhood and preschool age accompanied by a slowdown in the growth of the body, now at the forefront of the formation of motor functions and mental development.
Changes diet, expanding the boundaries of the world. Children get to preschool, where there is close contact with peers. This period is accompanied by frequent diseases passive immunity transmitted by the mother, is weakening, and their own protective forces of an organism are formed only. To prevent the emergence of dangerous diseases timely vaccination helps. Preschool children occurs awareness of themselves as individuals, they are actively thinking, mastering basic knowledge.
Admission to the school and the first years of schooling represent an important phase of adaptation to social norms. The children are in physical and mental tension, it is necessary to ensure control over their nutrition and proper rest. Psychological support of the parents is no less important than concern about the physical condition.
Adolescence is one of critical stages in human life. Age-related changes of the organism under the influence of hormonal changes, accompanied by emotional instability. Conflicts with seniors and peers, low self – esteem- these are the challenges faced by most teenagers. Timing of puberty depends on the individual circumstances, girls develop faster than boys. This step completes the physical and mental development of the child. Before us is an adult, independent person.
Mental development of children
Each child has a set of congenital reflexes that help him survive. Thanks to the mental development of the baby they complementare social skills in response, the beginnings of temperament forming a new identity. Age periods of development are closely linked with the emotional and intellectual growth of children.
For infancy a characteristic of the motor phase associated with the acquisition of motor functions. Then begins the stage of sensory, including auditory, visual, tactile perception of the world. Sensory development lasts up to 3 years, it lays the basis for abstract perception and thinking.
Affective period (3-12 years old) – is complicated by perceptions of what he saw, the child think about the concepts "bad" and "good". With 3 years there is a trend to independence. The development of logical thinking in children of preschool age through play and other activities (drawing, modeling).
Ideatornoy stage is of system of thought becomes more difficult, children pre-calculate their actions. This period falls during the Teens, accompanied by hormonal changes in the body. From the position of parents depends on how you perceive yourself, the teenager will find their place in life or will rebel.
Child development – a comprehensive process that involves the parents. To create a comfortable environment for physical and mental improvement of little is the mission of the family.