Dangerous diagnosis – detachment of the placenta in late pregnancy
The placenta is an organ engaged in the circulation of oxygen and nutrition from mother to fetus. This "meaty pellet", adjacent to the wall of the uterus, often called children's place. The connection of the embryo with a it is made through the umbilical cord.
Detachment of the placenta in late pregnancy is one of the most dangerous diseases that cause reasonable concern to the expectant mother. Doctors recommend at the first sign of trouble to go to the hospital, so as not to endanger the child's life.
The meaning and function of the placenta
In a woman's body after conception occurs many changes, one of them is the emergence of a new organ – the placenta. It is the connective tissue that serves for the life of the fetus.
It is charged with important functions:
- gas exchange – supply oxygen to the fetus and the diversion of the allocated carbon dioxide;
- maintaining normal levels of hormones in a woman's body;
- protection – the child is guarded from contact with the infections;
- nutrients – substances required for growth and development of the fetus receives through the placenta.
Symptoms of placental separation
The norm is separation of the placenta after half an hour after the baby is born. Premature separation of the elastic tissue from the uterine wall called placental abruption. Such a diagnosis in the initial trimester of pregnancy is less dangerous, if timely treatment to the hospital fruit preserve, appointing a special medical therapy. The fabric itself is in a stage of growth and increase, so pathology compensate in a natural way.
During this period, serious attitude towards their own body threatens the loss of a child late-term risk both the baby and his mother. Doctors have urgently to save their lives by caesarean section.
This pathology occurs in one of the 120 pregnant women, perinatal mortality is 15%. A disturbance in the functioning of the body cause bleeding and squeezing a certain area which ceases to carry out the exchange process between mother and child. The problem has the following symptoms:
- Discharge from the genital organs contain blood or is bleeding is the main indicator of the detachment of the placenta. It is observed in 80% of patients with this pathology. The intensity of the discharge depends on the degree of detachment of the tissues. This so-called external bleeding, which the woman promptly detects and goes to the hospital. In the remaining 20% of cases, there is internal bleeding, in which blood accumulates in the space separating tissues. In this situation, physicians are facing the only choice – to save the woman's life by removing the fetus along with uterus.
- Drawing pain in the lower abdomen – this symptom is invariably accompanied by hypertonicity of the uterus. With internal bleeding it is particularly intense. Hematoma, the growth pressing on the uterus and abdominal cavity, causing intense pain. Other symptoms accompanying internal bleeding: nausea, weakness, a state close to fainting.
- Irregular heartbeat, anxiety is indirect evidence of placental abruption in late pregnancy.
To signal a problem may be the activity of the fetus, which increases at small hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and is markedly reduced in progressive separation of the body. The separation of the half of the connective tissue leads to the death of a child.
The degree of detachment of the placenta
Pathological changes in the body associated with the separation of child seats, divided into 3 stages:
- Mild – detachment slight, edge. There is a slight vaginal discharge with blood and excitability of the uterus. At this stage, the child and the mother does not suffer. It goes without consequences, thanks to the formation of blood clots, stopping the bleeding. Detected with ultrasound or after birth.
- Detachment of medium gravity by a woman accompanied by bleeding, rapid pulse and hypertonicity of the uterus. When detached from a third to a half of the placenta a child is experiencing a sharp shortage of oxygen. The functioning of his heart slowing, the fetus in danger of death from oxygen starvation. Painful sensations women are periodic in nature, radiates to the crotch and lumbar region.
- Severe degree – the tissue exfoliates more than half, the process is accompanied by severe pain, intense bleeding or lack of it. The separation of the Central part and the filling in of the placenta with blood, the woman swells the abdomen, the uterus becomes asymmetric. Noticeable as characteristic of significant blood loss, pale skin, cold sweat, low blood pressure. The fetus has stopped the heartbeat, he dies from lack of oxygen.
Determination of the degree of separation of the placenta allows doctors to choose the tactics of treatment and to forecast the further course of pregnancy. The second and third stage of detachment of the child seat do not leave a chance to save the fetus. Primary and neprognoziruemoe degree of separation gives hope for a favorable outcome and requires regular monitoring.
The causes of placental abruption in late pregnancy
The placenta is called the child, from its functioning depends on the life of the fetus. Organ with a complex structure, criss-crossed by blood vessels, under pressure of the ovum and the uterine muscle. The balance of the two resultant forces and high elasticity prevent premature separation of the body.
The main factor that provokes the detachment of the placenta, is not clear. The causes of delamination are the health problems of women and the influence of external factors. Doctors believe the problem is multifactorial, that is pathology causing a set of negative circumstances:
- High blood pressure in a pregnant woman.
- Pregnancies provoke changes in the tissues of the endometrium, resulting in the children's place is poorly kept.
- Abdominal trauma in the fall or blow causes hematoma.
- Disorders of the endocrine system of the mother: diabetes, gipertireoze, diseases of the adrenal glands.
- The sharp fluctuation of the pressure caused by stress.
- Inflammation of the uterus.
- Post-term pregnancy, fabric children's place starts to degrade and flake off.
- The occurrence of inflammation in the uterus or the placenta because of infectious and other diseases.
- Low localization of child seats exposed to the overpressure of the child.
- An allergic reaction to the drugs.
- Smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy.
Detachment of the placenta in the last trimester often requires immediate delivery. Partial separation sometimes allows you to make pregnancy in the hospital. Timely treatment to the hospital if you have symptoms of delamination of child seats will help to prevent dangerous consequences.
The clinical nature of the disease does not create difficulties in the diagnosis. The doctor examines the medical history, listens to patient's complaints.
The main way to diagnose a compartment of the body, ultrasound of the placenta. This procedure gives information on the location, size and nature of the detachment. Pathology in the form of light is determined by the presence of blood clots. Gynecologist examines a female patient explains the condition of the cervix.
Additionally pregnant do the analysis on blood coagulation and KGT (cardiography) to study the fetal heartbeat. Signs of blood clotting are considered extremely dangerous. The results of ultrasonography and KGT allow to identify signs of hypoxia in children. Based on survey data, the doctor gives a recommendation for the further course of pregnancy.
If the due date close, doctors insist on the acceleration of the process of the cesarean section. If insufficient time is assessed, is very dangerous for a child – premature birth or progressive detachment.
Treatment tactics depends on the situation. On the timing of 34-36 weeks with slight vaginal bleeding a woman's pregnancy extend in a hospital. The patient is given oral antispasmodics:
To stop bleeding prescribed the following medications:
To avoid anemia therapy with the appointment of ascorbic acid and iron supplements:
- The doctor prescribed me.
The patient must comply with bed rest.
In the case where the birth canal is prepared, the doctors resort to opening membranes and are natural childbirth. Reducing the pressure of amniotic fluid prevents the detachment of the placenta in the process of labor. It is held under the supervision cardiomonitor controlling the fetal heart rate and uterine tone. When deterioration of a child or the appearance of heavy bleeding in women, doctors perform surgery (caesarean section).
Concurrently with the delivery is the maintenance of the patient through the introduction of donor blood, pain medicines, infusion solutions. After birth, the placenta is removed manually and a survey of the uterus. In a situation where there is no way to stop the bleeding, the organ is removed completely.
Despite the fact that it is impossible to specify unequivocally the reason why is placental abruption, there are a few preventive recommendations:
- The expectant mother needs to take care of your health and the baby's life, abandoning bad habits: Smoking, drugs, alcohol.li>
- The woman should receive adequate nutrition with enough iron, vitamins and minerals.
- Before conception is necessary to cure the underlying disease.
- During pregnancy it is recommended that regular visits to the gynecologist, timely testing and implementation of physician orders.