Genital herpes refers to diseases of the genital organs, it is caused by the herpes virus. As you know, there are several types of herpes virus. In 80% of cases genital herpes is caused by HSV type 2. In the remaining 20% is HSV 1 and the combination of both agents.
If the disease first arose, then the causative agent may be HSV 1. With each repeated case, it will be a virus of simple herpes 2 types. The affected area is as follows: the vulva, the perineum, the area around the anus, rarely vagina and cervix and in advanced and severe cases of internal sex organs (ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes).
How is genital herpes?
- Sexual transmission. Infection occurs in all types of sexual intercourse. Dangerous are patients with clinical manifestations: the presence of elements of an eruption, bubbles. If their place is formed on the peel, the patient is not dangerous in epidemiological terms;
- As an exception to the rule – a household way of transfer of HSV 2. Extremely rare;
- Dedicated and inoculation method of transmission of the virus. The patient contributes to the spread of the virus (infected, for example, mucosa of the lips, healthy, for example, genitals, eyes);
- The vital threat is the transmission from mother to child vertical path. It is often intrauterine infection in the fetus, less contamination during the passage of the baby through the birth canal. Depending on the duration of pregnancy can occur miscarriage, fading pregnancy, multiple congenital abnormalities or birth of a child with a serious infection life-threatening. In many cases, the infection becomes lethal for the baby.
The symptoms of genital herpes
For genital herpes there are specific features. The first herpes virus type 2 in 90% of cases no clinical symptoms. About 80% of the adult population are carriers of the virus, the symptoms are no more than 12%.
Consequently, the first clinical manifestations the patient sees already in the stage of relapse of chronic infection, they are not signs of fresh intrusion.
Provoke the awakening of the virus and the beginning of the clinic the following factors: surgical intervention with the use of anesthesia, the period of menstruation, emotional and mental stress (strife, stress, etc.), infectious diseases, cosmetic procedures, hypothermia, fatigue and other factors reduce the body's resistance.
Among the most common symptoms of genital herpes include the following:
- Rash. Typical grouped or single vesicles on labia, clitoris,
the perineum, the hips, the sacrum. They are characterized by recurrence "flowering": the redness, the bubble, sores, crust. This period lasts no more than 7-10 days. If the rash is delayed, new items, painful, in new places, with a bilateral lesion, most likely has a staph infection;
- Burning sensation and itching in places of rash;
- If you were involved in the process the mucosa of the urethra, when urinating there will be a burning and itching;
- Enlarged regional (inguinal) lymph nodes;
- Violation of the General condition, malaise, weakness, temperature can increase.
Treatment of genital herpes
Therapy this disease will not lead to the elimination of the virus from the body, but will allow to cope with the symptoms, reduce the frequency of relapses. A common rule of treating herpes infection is the use of chemotherapy antiviral action.
Against herpes virus employs such medications:
- Acyclovir (zovirax analogues);
- The he needs therapy with valtrex (valacyclovir);
- Denavir (penciclovir);
- Famvir (famciclovir).
The most popular treatment of genital herpes Acyclovir. Early administration of drugs ensures the best effect of treatment.
Maintenance therapy is usually prescribed for several months to patients with frequent relapses (up to 6 times per year).
Use other groups of medications, however, their purpose must be strictly motivated and justified. It can be immunomodulators, interferon preparations, adaptogens. Often their effectiveness is not proven.
Why immunomodulators are unreasonable if you have a herpes infection? In 90% of cases the immune system in patients with herpes does not suffer, therefore, the appointment of such drugs is meaningless.
The problem of immunological plan with the HSV 2 is that suffering the specific immune response, hence the effect can be expected from the specific immunization (passive and active). For example, Gerbino other immunoglobulin against HSV, using a herpes vaccine.
Topically apply symptomatic therapy is to reduce discomfort, itching and burning, sometimes justified the use of soft analgetic drugs.
Genital herpes in pregnancy
Because pregnancy is a stressful condition and may be complicated by aggravation of chronic infections, it is advisable to complete a full survey before planning.
If the mother is in the blood of antibodies to HSV, and she is a carrier of it, then in most cases the danger for the child does not exist. In this case, the baby will receive the necessary antibodies from the mother.
If during pregnancy there was a relapse of the disease, and the rash is localized on the mucosa of the cervix and vagina, the child faces as intrauterine infection and infection during the passage through the birth canal.
In such cases, medical personnel perform the caesarean section. To determine the necessity of operative delivery, a month before expected delivery in pregnant women take swabs of the mucus of the cervical canal.
If repeated testing reveals an antigen to HSV, the only method of delivery becomes a cesarean.
The consequences of HSV infection to the fetus:
- Infection in the first half of pregnancy will lead to the development of deformities of the fetus, missed abortion, miscarriage;
- Infection of the mother during the second half of pregnancy, will lead to retinal pathology of the fetus, heart defects, microcephaly, intrauterine viral pneumonia;
- Infection of a child in vnutriutrobno period may lead to premature birth, cerebral palsy child, blindness, epilepsy, deafness and even death of the newborn.
If the mother deliberately refers to the health of the unborn child and their health and undergo the necessary course of therapy, the risk of infection and complications is minimized.