Gestational diabetes: causes, symptoms, treatment

The increase in blood sugar level during pregnancy indicates the development of the so-called gestational diabetes. The main difference between this form of the disease is that it completely disappears after childbirth on their own.


It is worth noting that this phenomenon represents a threat to the expectant mother and her child, for example, baby this could grow too big and it will affect the normal flow of the generic process. Also this disease is fraught with lack of oxygen for the baby – hypoxia.

But adequate and timely treatment of the disease allows the future mother, independently of having a healthy baby.

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The reasons for the development of the disease

Doctors say that gestational diabetes arising in pregnancy contributes to the development of a permanent form in the future. However, this possibility can be greatly reduced, if you constantly monitor your weight, monitor diet and be physically active.

The amount of sugar controls the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas. Under its influence glucose from consumed food into the cells of the body, and consequently its level in the blood is reduced.

During the period of pregnancy placenta also secretes hormones that act opposite to insulin, there is raised sugar levels. This significantly increases the load on the pancreas and it does not always cope with it, so disrupted her functioning. In the end, the level of glucose much higher than normal.

Too much level of the last bad effect on two organisms: women and the baby. Glucose penetrates to the fetus through the placenta, therefore increasing the load on his pancreas, and he doesn't always cope with it.

At this time, the mother's pancreas works with the increased load, highlighting two times more insulin. His excess speed up the process glucose and turn it into fats, therefore, body weight is significantly increased.

Acceleration of metabolism in the fetus requires admission more oxygen, but his arrival at this point are limited. It is for this reason often develop hypoxia.

Risk factors

Gestational diabetes complicates the course of labor in 10% of cases.

Significantly increases the risk of developing the disease in women who have the following characteristics:

  • The gestational form of the disease in history;
  • Obesity, high;
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome;
  • Sugar in the urine;
  • Diabetes in the immediate family.

The least affected by the pathology of ladies up to 25 years, with normal weight, without diabetes in relatives and previous complicated pregnancies.


Mild disease may not show, so the expectant mother is often unaware of its presence. That is why it is important to take blood tests, because in this case only on the results, we can talk about the presence of the violation.

If discovered the slightest deviation from the norm, then watching the doctor prescribes a more thorough examination, called the "test for glucose tolerance" or "sugar curve". The study is to measure not on an empty stomach and after drinking a glass of water with glucose.

Normal rates vary from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol/L. in case of violation of tolerance to glucose of 5.5 to 7.1. If the above results of 7.1 and 11.1 on an empty stomach after ingestion of glucose, then this indicates the presence of permanent diabetes.

In some cases, violations are not detected during the study because indicators change throughout the day. Therefore, we use another test, the glycated hemoglobin that is bound with glucose. It reflects the indicators are not for the current day and for the previous week.

If during this time they rose higher than normal at least once, then the test probably would reveal this. That is why it is often used to monitor the quality and effectiveness of the treatment.

Symptoms of diabetes moderate and severe forms in pregnant women manifested in the form of:

  • Severe thirst;
  • Blurry vision;
  • A constant feeling of hunger;
  • Frequent and copious urination.

As a pregnant quite often want to eat and drink, only these two symptoms are not considered as prerequisite for the diagnosis of such condition. Only regular doctor visits and testing will help to identify the violation.

Diet in diabetes in pregnant women

The main goal of treatment is to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Nutrition during this period should be a fraction – not less than 6 times a day to the nutrients and energy received into the body evenly throughout the day. Thus do not allow sharp fluctuations of indices.

A therapeutic diet is designed to eliminate possible flow of "simple" carbohydrates, which especially in large quantities are contained in jam, candy, sugar and so Consumption of complex carbohydrates is also reduced, only half of the total amount of food, the rest of the diet should be proteins and fats.

Selection menu for women carried out by a qualified dietician.

Physical activity


The outdoor activities help to increase oxygen flow in the blood. So, regular walks will protect the baby from hypoxia and improve its metabolism.

Due to the physical stress consumes excess sugar, so fading symptoms of the disease.

Exercises help to burn the already accumulated reserve of calories to stop weight gain and even reduce the latter. Charging or gymnastics will greatly facilitate the work of insulin because fats hamper.

In most cases diet in combination with physical exercise relieves the disorder. There is no need to exhaust yourself with exhausting workouts. Enough walk at a moderate pace for about 2-3 hours several times a week. During this activity consumed calories, reduced sugar levels, but be sure to stick to your diet, especially if the woman is not taking insulin.

An alternative walk can be swimming and Aqua aerobics. This would be especially helpful for those women who before pregnancy suffered from excess weight.

When required insulin?

Diabetes gestational diabetes sometimes requires insulin, which, however, are absolutely safe for the expectant mother and her baby. To him there is no addiction, so the cancellation after delivery does not affect the body.

Its application is necessary in those cases when the diet in combination with exercise have not yielded the desired result and the sugar remains at the same level. There are times when a doctor prescribes it immediately after diagnosis.

When the doctor prescribed the insulin, it is not necessary to refuse his admission. The main thing – to strictly follow the doctor's instructions, for example, you can not skip the dose and spontaneously change the time of admission. You also need time pass research.

While taking this hormone it is necessary several times a day to measure with the help of a special device – glucose meter. Careful control will allow you to monitor glycemia. Readings you need to record and show your doctor at a scheduled appointment.

Consequences of gestational diabetes

Most women can give birth naturally. Such a diagnosis is not an indicator for cesarean section.

Talking about the past comes only when the fruit becomes too large, so expectant mothers must often undergo ultrasound:

  • During the generative process control the sugar level several times a day. If glucose is higher than normal, your doctor may prescribe insulin intravenously. Sometimes there is a need for glucose, which is also administered through a dropper;
  • Takes control of fetal heart rate with CTG. If the child's condition deteriorates, the doctor makes the decision for urgent caesarean section.

In the vast majority cases, the sugar comes back to normal after a few days after delivery. The woman undergoing gestational diabetes should be prepared for the fact that it can occur in following pregnancies. In addition, these ladies are at increased risk of permanent form.

Balanced diet, quitting bad habits will help to significantly reduce these risks, and sometimes even prevent disease. You need to eat only healthy food, be physically active, to get rid of obesity.