Jaundice in children: causes, symptoms and signs, diagnosis and treatment
Jaundice is not a disease but a symptom itself. This condition indicates malfunction of liver or blood disorders. Yellowing of skin and sclera due to excess amount of bilirubin in the blood. In medicine, jaundice is not allocated as an independent pathology. Yellowing is perceived by doctors as a dangerous signal of violation of the functions of the body.
Features the appearance of jaundice in children
The reason for the change of color of skin is yellow pigment is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. In a healthy body, the bilirubin is excreted through the digestive tract along with feces. But when liver failure or obstruction biliary tract, he gradually begins to accumulate in the blood. Partly its excess is eliminated through the kidneys, putting them overhead, as well as through the skin, which manifests itself in her wetness.
Icteric syndrome, as we already know, occurs because of disorders of the liver or biliary tract. Affect the operation of this system may be a large number of reasons.
Turning to the doctor he may suspect the following forms of pathology:
- Liver. Hepatocytes (liver cells) cease to convert the bilirubin into bile. For example, this happens in viral hepatitis;
- Hemolytic. The cause of its occurrence – diseases of the blood. There is such a thing as a jaundice of newborn children, which is associated with blood-forming function of the liver. This condition is not dangerous, but it can occur in adults. In the latter case, the hemolytic form of pathology associated with poisoning, lymphoma, anemia or an autoimmune disease;
- Obstructive. Caused by dysfunction of the gallbladder and the stagnant bile ducts, for example, the latter can get clogged by accumulation of bile or stones, which causes excessive the flow of bilirubin in the blood.
Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of jaundice in children
This pathology has a characteristic clinical picture, so it is quite simple to diagnose. For example, always present pain. The pain is localized in the right hypochondrium, in the area of the liver. And often present symptoms such as fever, chills, headache. The patient begins to lose weight, decreased appetite, dyspeptic disorders are observed.
Bile regurgitation is present in cholecystitis. In addition, there are also General signs of intoxication: nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, etc.
Symptoms of jaundice in children
The classic manifestation is a characteristic yellowish tint of the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes. It should be noted that sometimes the so-called carotene or about jaundice in children. This phenomenon is triggered by excessive consumption of carotene ingested with a meal.
To find out carotene is jaundice or real, you must monitor the symptoms. First and foremost, you need to pay attention not only on the skin, but also on the sclera and mucous membranes. In addition, the true disease is accompanied by darkening of urine and stool become, on the contrary, almost white, i.e. colorless.
What to do if the baby is born with jaundice
In this case there is a serious violation. Usually this happens when the incompatibility of the RH factors of the mother and the baby. In the end, the red blood cells are destroyed before birth. This leads to severe anemia.
Such a child may lag in development, to be deaf. Such children have often observed of muscle failure, not excluded fatal.
Prolonged jaundice: a disease in the month of the child
Icteric syndrome normal goes to the 2-3 week of life, but part of the healthy kids yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes can be observed up to 1-3 months of life. As a rule, it is quite natural for the monthly baby. It is usually provoke the medication that the woman received during pregnancy and childbirth, substance in breast milk, prematurity, immaturity of the child, insufficient weight gain, and a number of pathologies.
The increase in indirect bilirubin to 200-250 µmol/l is not harmful to baby. It is not as toxic as for a newborn child, especially when rapid growth is observed in the first days of life.
In some cases, can be assigned to phototherapy. To stop breastfeeding is not required. Can apply drugs ursodeoxycholic acid, contributes to liquefaction of bile and to improve the outflow itself. If the appearance of jaundice was preceded by a serious pathology, efforts directed at the elimination of the last.
Diagnosis forms icteric syndrome
Timely access to a doctor quickly and efficiently eliminate the disease and to relieve symptoms. In the diagnostic process it is necessary to hold General and biochemical blood analysis, study on the concentration of bilirubin in the body and liver function tests.
In some cases, a liver biopsy, which allows the specialist to assess the degree of damage of the organ and to establish the nature of the disease.
Treatment of jaundice
Method of elimination of the disease depends on its causes. Depending on the provoking factor is assigned to a drug therapy aimed at the destruction of excessive amounts of bilirubin in the blood. Sometimes use phototherapy, which was mentioned above. Neonatal jaundice is not treated with medicines, usually, it resolves on its own.
It is very important to the diet: the diet should be gentle, soft to the biliary system. It is useful to give the kids dairy products, vegetables, lean fish and lean meat. Not recommended to consume fruits containing rough cellulose.
Complications of jaundice
If it fails to detect the disease and start treatment, it usually takes place without complications. Very rarely, but it happens that the pathology of newborns worsens blood circulation in body tissues, causing the development of hemolytic anemia. In turn, the latter can affect the mental development of the baby, especially if he has already born with her.
By itself, the syndrome is not dangerous, but the disease that caused them, can significantly worsen the condition, for example, to affect the function of the biliary and other systems of the body.
Features of bilirubin is that it is a kind of poison that in large numbers creates intoxication, poisoning the blood and adversely affecting the nervous system. Untimely or improper treatment of the disease of a newborn can lead to the violation of his intellectual development.
In this case, you need to beware of diseases causing jaundice syndrome. The easiest way to avoid those, making sure personal hygiene. You need to carefully follow the process of cooking and food processing. Do not allow the child to contact with sharp objects (scalpels, razors, needles, syringes).
Vaccinations against jaundice (hepatitis) children
Today vaccination against such diseases as hepatitis a and b diseases accompanied with change of color of the skin. Hepatitis a is mainly transmitted through everyday life and is an intestinal viral infection that does not end the severe complications. Hepatitis b is transmitted through blood and is dangerous as it can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Vaccination against hepatitis A is put for both children and adults, particularly those who have liver disease. Such a measure is completely safe and has no side effects. Vaccination is carried out twice with an interval of six months or a year. Approximately 10 days after the first vaccination in the body produces antibodies. This protection is valid from 6 to 10 years.
Vaccination against hepatitis b was done three times at intervals of 1 month. The first vaccination of children is still in the hospital. This measure allows to protect against hepatitis In about 10 years, but some people have formed lifelong immunity.
Vaccinations data are Advisory in nature, but parents can now abandon the use of any vaccines.
Based on the above.to sum up: vaccination is an uncontested way to prevent the development of hepatitis A and b, which are accompanied by jaundice and other symptoms, as well as pose a danger to health (hepatitis b). Let your kids be healthy!