Mixed flora in smear – what it is and evidenced?
Smear on flora – variety of tests, which allows to determine the presence and number of pathogenic microorganisms in the vagina. This gives the possibility to determine the risk of development of gynecological diseases and other health problems.
What is a mixed flora in the vaginal smear and what does this interpretation of the test results, we will understand our article.
Varieties of microflora in the vagina
In the process of macroscopic analysis in smear detects squamous epithelial cells, lactobacilli Dederleyna, cocci, leukocytes and other types of microorganisms. The composition of the smear to determine the type of microflora, and the possibility of occurrence of pathological processes.
What types of Flor exist?
- Scarce. During the macroscopic analysis in the environment of the vagina identifitseerida, basically just doderlein Bacillus – Lactobacillus useful;
- Average. In the field of view of a specialist is about 7-10 white blood cells and large colonies of lactobacilli;
- Combined. You have from 15 to 30 leukocytes, a small number of lactobacilli and cocci pathogenic bacteria spherical type;
- Abundant. The inner vaginal wall densely covered with leukocytes in the absence of lactobacilli. Coccobacillary microflora exudes an unpleasant smell and causes the release of large amounts of mucus.
Why pass a swab?
The material from the vagina making in order to diagnose the presence of pathogens and inflammatory processes in the body.
Carry out the procedure in the presence of the following signs:
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- change the color and smell of secretions;
- burning or itching inside the vagina.
Analysis of the status "female" microflora you need to do during pregnancy, menopause and suspected development of gynecological diseases. Also experts recommend to take the test after taking hormonal medicines can affect the level of acidity inside the cervical canal and uterus.
What can be detected in a smear?
For the diagnosis of the disease specialists take material not only from the vagina but the cervical canal with the urethra.
In the course of microscopic diagnosis in smear may be present such types of cells:
- Squamous epithelium – like cells, which constitute all of the inner surface of the cervical canal and vagina. The presence of a large number of cells indicates the possibility of the development of vaginitis or urethritis. The lack of flat epithelium indicates insufficient secretion of progesterone;
- Leukocytes is the guardianswho fight with pathogenic microorganisms. In normal quantity in the vagina does not exceed 10 pieces in the cervix – 30. The high number of leukocytes often indicates the presence of inflammation (cervicitis, vaginitis), accompanied by phagocytosis – the devouring of pathogenic agents "defenders";
- Mucus – derived vaginal glands and of the cervix. In a smear, its amount should be moderate. Profuse discharge may indicate bacterial overgrowth;
- "Vaginal" wand (Doderlein) – gram-positive cells, components of the normal microflora. Deficiency in "useful" sticks at 80% indicates the development of bacterial vaginosis.
What is mixed flora?
The presence of mixed flora in the smear indicates the imbalance between pathogenic and nebulisator microorganisms. In biological material contained squamous epithelium, Lactobacillus Doderlein, leukocytes, and other types of microorganisms.
In the absence of any pathological processes, the number of lactobacilli is about 90-95%, the remaining 5% is conditional-pathogenic agents, which include cocci and rods.
Potentially dangerous bacteria in a small amount does not harm the body, but increasing their population grows and the threat of development of diseases. During pregnancy, the risk of colonies of pathogens is very high. If you have a mixed flora in the vaginal smear during pregnancy should undergo a comprehensive treatment that will prevent uncontrolled multiplication of staphylococci and other pathogenic agents.
The content of the flora of the vagina
In the decryption process of the analyses sampled the biomaterial is awarded the degree of purity.
It indicates that the pH level in the microflora and the presence of pathogenic bacteria and sticks:
- 1 – normal flora in which lactobacilli and opportunistic pathogens are within permitted limits;
- Stage 2 is a relatively normal environment of the vagina, in which the percentage of disease-causing agents, but is not dangerous to health;
- Stage 3 – flora of mixed type with a predominance of pathogenic microorganisms on the sticks Doderlein;
- 4 degree – a pathological state characterized by the predominance of squamous epithelium, leukocytes and "foreign" bacteria.
What does a rich microflora?
Many women, reading the results of the analyses do not understand how to decipher the phrase "combined a rich flora in the smear". The cytological data of such a diagnosis indicates the presence of abscesses in the uterus.
In this case, microscopic examination of the biomaterial is detected following types of cells and microorganisms:
- a large amount of mucus;
- blood cells;
- the presence of traces of phagocytosis;
- the layers of cells of the MPE;
- the high content of squamous epithelium.
A rich mixed flora can be treated with debridement of vaginal plugs, which inhibit the activity of pathogens and restore the normal pH level.
Coccobacillary flora pathological state of the environment of the cervical canal and vagina. It is dominated by the so-called coccobacilli, representing the average between the bacilli and cocci usual.
To common representatives of pathogenic from include:
- Haemophilus wand;
- chlamydia trachomatis (causes development of chlamydia);
- of Gardnerella vaginalis.
A large number of pathogenic agents leads to the development of vaginitis, fungal infections, including bacterial vaginosis.
What are the reasons for their occurrence in the body?
- Antibiotics. Antibiotics weaken the immune system, creating favorable conditions for the development of pathogenic bacteria;
- Contraception. Hormones lead to disturbances in the microflora, which affects the number of leukocytes and lactobacilli in the environment;
- IUDs. By preventing unwanted pregnancy, women unwittingly create an imbalance in the vaginal environment suitable for the development of coccobacilli;
- Frequent douching. Cleaning the vagina provokes the leaching of the normal flora and proliferation of harmful bacteria.
Pathogenic flora of mixed type, including coccobacillary can be resolved with the resumption of normal levels of pH in "feminine" environment. To suppress the activity of pathogens, the doctor will prescribe sparing antibiotics, struggling with the coccobacilli.
Dysbacteriosis of the vagina indicates the presence of inflammatory processes or the development of other sexually transmitted diseases. If you experience severe itching or discomfort inside the genital organs, is to pass a swab test to confirm the diagnosis.
Do not engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment! Good health and wellbeing!