Sensorimotor alalia – "sentence" for the normal development of the child?
Sensorimotor alalia is a serious speech disorder, which can be expressed in its dysfunction or absence. The defect develops due to lesions of the cortical centers of the brain responsible for speech development. This can occur in utero or in the first 3 years of baby's life.
What is the disease?
Alalia called deep aborted speech functions in children. It is in almost all cases are diagnosed before school age. In this disease, a speech disorder is systemic, extensive nature. Simply put, violated all of the components of human speech. This pathology manifests quite clearly and specific.
Common symptoms of sensorimotor alalia are such signs:
- later, the formation of verbal reactions;
- the paucity of vocabulary;
- violations of syllabic structure;
- inarticulate pronunciation, and others.
A child suffering from this disorder needs objective examination of a neurologist and a speech therapist. Treatment of disorders should include medical therapy, the active development of the mental reactions, speech therapy correction (the development of phoneco-phonemic and lexical-grammatical processes).
Pathology manifests the original lack of or sudden, sharp restriction of expressive and impressive speech. This child is considered ordenadores, usually that is the conclusion makes a speech pathologist after examination. It should be noted that in the case of only one disorder speech correction is obviously not enough. The disease is purely physiological in nature, and therefore the absence or deficiency of speech has nothing to do with mental retardation, hearing defects and reduced intelligence.
Sensorimotor alalia: what is the reason for underdevelopment of speech in children?
Sensorimotor alalia can develop in the antenatal, intrapartum and early period of development of the child (to age three). Accordingly, specific predisposing factors are directly linked to the process of formation and growth of the child's body at different stages of his life.
In the antenatal or intrapartum period, the disease can develop at fonetica Paltrow:
- The threat of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage);
- Intrauterine infection with TORCH organisms-complex;
- Prolonged and severe hypoxia of the fetus (such a violation may be associated not only with obstetric pathologies, but also with exogenous factors such as maternal Smoking, etc.);
- Strong toxicosis;
- Drops of pregnant women associated with injuries of the fetus;
- Somatic diseases of the expectant mother in the chronic form (in this category include hypotension, hypertension, heart failure, and other systemic pathologies the permanent type).
Forecasts sensorimotor alalia, the child largely depends on how early it was discovered disorder. From the list of causes that trigger the problem, the conclusion is that every pregnant woman must take care of yourself in the process of gestation and to seek timely and appropriate help when you have any health problems.
The development of complications, sensorimotor alalia with autistic traits may occur in the perinatal period, i.e. during delivery. Usually pathological processes in this case associated with intracranial birth trauma, prematurity and asphyxia of newborns.
Disturbances in the cerebral cortex is also often occur on the background too transient, rapid natural childbirth, or in the opposite case, when a woman gives birth too long. Rarer is the case when using instrumental obstetrical benefits (including cesarean delivery).
If we talk about development disorders in the first years of baby's life, it can provoke:
It also causes lesions of the speech center is considered as chronic somatic diseases, leading to malnutrition, or exhaustion of the Central nervous system. Some doctors believe that alalia may be related to family history, the genetic predisposition of the child. Also, pathology can develop on the background of frequent and prolonged illness in infancy, which can become even "harmless" SARS. Often breach develops on the background of prolonged colds or pneumonia.
Not the last place in the provoking factors are surgical intervention in the child's body, performed with the aid of General anesthesia.
Although the disorder and is not related to General mental retardation, unfavourable social situation in the family of the child plays in its development a crucial role. Roughly speaking, educational neglect and lack of speech communication give a strong impetus to the rapid progression of the disease.
Classification of disorders
Principles of correction of sensorimotor alalia largely associated with the cause of the occurrence of the disorder in the child.
It should also be noted that all of alalia are classified in three main types:
- Motor (impaired speech);
- Sensory (violation of the impressive speech);
- Sensorimotor (combined violation of expressive and impressive speech).
To neurological symptoms of motor alalia should include the following manifestations:
- Total embarrassment;
- Violation of coordination of movements;
- Serious defects associated with fine motor tasks of the fingers, the inability to ensure child basic self-help skills (tying Shoe laces and doing up buttons);
- Disorder verbal memory, impaired attention, concentration and reaction;
- Hyperactivity disorder at an early age, or, conversely, excessive lethargy, weakness, high fatigability;
- Gross violations of private speech with preservation of the understanding of someone else;
- A significant delay of formation of all language skills (Gulen, of babbling, of the monologue, syllables, words, phrases);
- The impossibility of reproducing or repeating verbal zvukopesa;
- Problems with articulation, accompanied by a gross distortion of the syllabic structure of words;
- Scarce vocabulary (noted in adult age, when a healthy child is beginning to master words).
To neurological symptoms of sensory alalia should include the following manifestations:
- Increased speech activity, coupled with the lack of understanding of reversed speech (the child speaks incoherently, confuses words and sounds, uses a meaningless word and sound combinations);
- The obsessive repetition of a word or sound omissions and substitutions of syllables;
- Gross violation of phonemic hearing (the severe form of the understanding of speech is completely absent, in the other there is situational).
Touch form almost never found in the "clean" version. The most common combined, or motorsensory sensorimotor alalia, the symptoms of which are combined manifestation of two different forms of disorder.
Treatment alalia the child
The principle of adequate treatment of sensorimotor alalia is purely complex in nature. Are used teaching, speech therapy and medical methods. Children are treated in special institutions, hospitals, sanatoriums.
Correction alalia, regardless of form, includes the following methods:
- Physiotherapy (elektropoliert, laser therapy, acupressure or acupuncture, magnetic therapy, electrical stimulation, hydrotherapy, MSK);
- Work on General motor skills and hand with the teacher;
- Speech therapy sessions (including massage);
- Learning to read and write.
Children with alalia can face additional problems after rehabilitation treatment.
They are often found violations of written speech as dyslexia and dysgraphia. The key to success is early, early (3-4 years) a treatment that involves a complex effect on all components of speech.
Kids with motor form of the disorder have the most favorable prognosis of treatment. Alas, in a systemic form of the disease the prognosis is uncertain. Remedial work on the installed alalia prevents the development of secondary mental retardation.
To prevent such disorder, as sensorimotor alalia, unfortunately, is almost impossible. But you can do everything possible to minimize provoking factors of the disease. Let your child be healthy and happy!