What is "blood sugar"?
This definition is actually not. Is an indicator of the amount of glucose contained in the blood. But not only inhabitants, and even doctors, often use the phrase: the blood sugar – so it stuck.
What you need to know about sugar?
Measured values of blood sugar in milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter.
The indicator assesses the state of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, the functioning of the adrenal glands, pancreas, and hypothalamic-pituitary system. This system is a center of neuroendocrine regulation of the organism.
For violation of any of these organs and systems are acceptable for the body's blood sugar level changes: reduced or increased.
Support a normal rate of sugar carries the pancreas. It produces for this purpose a special balance hormones: glucagon, Amylin, incretin and insulin.
Additionally, the level of sugar is maintained in other organs that secrete their hormones:
- the adrenal glands in the same layer of its bark produces norepinephrine;
- in the other, corticosterone and cortisol;
- the thyroid gland supplies its hormones that increase sugar rate.
On all systems the influence of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus – parts of the brain.
Enters the body glucose with food containing complex carbohydrates that are broken down during digestion. When excess liver makes glycogen storage stock.
As soon as there is the need to:
- increased physical activity;
- stressful situation;
- the change in diet, the liver begins to "split" the stock and throws it into the blood.
How is the rate of glucose in red blood cells?
The most popular two ways of measurement:
- We consider separately the sugar level. Blood sampling is carried out on an empty stomach in the morning. 8 hours before it can no longer eat anything;
- Measurement after exercise. During it blood is taken after a certain time. On an empty stomach; after the patient received 75 g of glucose dissolved in a glass of water; and several times after ingestion of sweet liquids for 2 hours. According to the obtained indicators built sugar curve that determines how quickly the sugar level returns to normal.
It is advisable to repeat both the analysis of 3-5 days and for authenticity all the time to diet.
Currently do not need to attend the lab so that you know your sugar level in the moment when the condition worsens. There are home glucose monitors which are easy to handle yourself and make sure that the sugar level was acceptable.
Norm and the variation of glucose
The rate of sugar in the blood is not defined by a single value. In the adult it is in the range from 3.3 to 6.0 mmol/l, if you define an index on an empty stomach.
The allowable level of excess blood sugar may not be more than 0.5 mmol/L. If this value is exceeded by another 0.1, that is, becomes equal to 6.6, it is possible to suspect endocrine disorders.
In determining the sugar level must take into consideration the conditions in which the analysis is carried out because the level of influence different States of the organism.
In children low blood sugar levels compared to adults. In infants it is in the range of 2.78 – 4.4 mmol/l in children of preschool age lower rate as adults, and the top is slightly below 5.0 mmol/L. To adolescence in children normal blood sugar level becomes as adults.
In women during pregnancy can develop gestational diabetes, as the body works double duty and secretion of cortisol by the adrenal glands increases. The typical symptoms of diabetes in pregnant women, but increasing the level of glucose in the blood can cause abnormalities in the fetus. Therefore, the content of sugar during pregnancy you want to control.
As the change in the content of glucose in the blood acts on the body?
Sometimes deviations of the sugar content of the norm discovered accidentally during routine testing.
But in most cases is felt, when the level of glucose reduced or increased.
Low sugar content is recorded if the patient voiced complaints of the following States:
- constantly disturbing condition;
- frequent bouts of hunger, even after eating it took a little time;
- acceleration of cardiac rhythm;
- nausea not associated with food intake;
- increased sweating,
and while he has unnatural pale skin, it can be assumed that he had slightly reduced the level of blood sugar.
Serious deviations below the norm cause more serious symptoms:
- constant headache;
- spatial disorientation;
- inability to concentrate attention;
- blurred vision.
Associated this condition with the fact that not enough glucose for intracellular metabolism, therefore starts glucose starvation and affects the Central nervous system.
Hypoglycemia is a similar condition – can lead to household accidents. Brain damage caused by falling sugar index, and irreversible.
The sugar level drops in the following cases:
- Manifest diseases that cause the malabsorption syndrome glucose ceases to be absorbed into the bloodstream in the right amount;
- When lesions of the liver parenchyma as a result of intoxication;
- When kidney failure;
- During anorexia;
- If you stick to a wrong rigid diets;
- In Bulimia;
- In hypothyroidism.
Indicator standards for blood glucose exceeded. Increased by more than 1 mmol/l blood sugar in most cases, evidence of diabetes. This disease can be classified into 2 types: I and II.
Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Cells in the pancreas that produce insulin start to break down.
The patient notes the following signs:
- I am always thirsty;
- Urine frequency and intensity of it increases;
- There is a feeling of drowsiness, weakness;
- Increased blood pressure;
- Significantly swollen limb;
- When changing the ambient temperature in the fingertips of hands and feet felt a tingling sensation;
- Sharply progressive deterioration of eyesight;
- Any damage to the skin causes purulent process: the wound will not be tightened for a long time;
- Weight loss begins;
- There is a bowel dysfunction.
These symptoms appear abruptly.
Diabetes type II symptoms were the same, but increases gradually. The level of insulin in the blood remains normal, the pancreas produces it in full, but reduced obseletion reaction to its impact.
The first manifestations of the disease can be seen by the fall in immunity, occurrence of night cramps in the calf muscles, deterioration of skin color and its quality.
In advanced cases in the absence of the adjustment of the level of glucose in the body possible for the patient even death.
Prevention and treatment of diabetes
The level of blood sugar requires constant monitoring. If you have close relatives in the direct line have diabetes, you should analyze its own condition in the event of adverse changes and try:
- to limit the use of caffeine in the evening;
- to comply with a permanent regime of work and rest;
- eat right to prevent weight gain;
- to limit the consumption of sweets;
- be sure to exercise.
Type I diabetes is completely impossible to cure. Insulin must be taken continuously.
But when type II diabetes can control the level of glucose in blood and to live an active, normal life, respecting minor limitations.: 1.7 em;">
Take care of yourself and your feelings, in identifying deviations, immediately contact a doctor!