Why does a dislocation of the jaw occur and how to help the victim?

Dislocation or subluxation of the mandible is not uncommon. Injury can be caused by getting carried away with opening your mouth, or by trying to crack a hard nut. The upper jaw is motionless, and the lower, shaped like a horseshoe, is attached to the temporal bones with the help of symmetrically located temporomandibular joints. With sudden movements, the articular head can shift, jump over the articular tubercle of the temporal bone, and remain in front.

This can be seen by additional signs, but the main one is painful or impossible to open your mouth.

Contents articles

Causes and signs of joint displacement

Weakening of the jaw ligaments are caused by diseases associated with joint deformities. These include: arthritis, rheumatism, osteomyelitis, encephalopathy, epilepsy.

Displacement of the lower jaw occurs:

  • when trauma;
  • congenital pathology - flattened glenoid fossa;
  • excessive mouth opening;
  • sudden movement if the ligaments are weakened.
< div class = "image"> Why does a dislocation of the jaw occur and how to help the victim?

Most often, older women dislocate the jaw during normal movements - their glenoid fossa is less deep, and the ligaments relax due to age-related changes.

If there is a person who has a habitual dislocation, then you need to know which doctor sets the jaw. In case of such an incident, you should contact an orthodontist or traumatologist. In most cases, the jaw is adjusted without anesthesia, but pain relief may be required. In severe dislocations, the condition causes severe pain.

The symptoms of a dislocated jaw can be divided into major and minor. The main symptoms include: pain in the lower jaw and joints, inability to close the mouth completely, or a change in bite.

Additional signs are not found in everyone, they include:

  • blue discoloration of the jaw;
  • inability to speak clearly or complete loss of speech ability;
  • drooling;
  • face pain ;
  • bleeding from the mouth;
  • swelling of the submandibular zone.

The dislocation should be corrected as soon as possible - if the pain is acute, the following may appear: disorder consciousness, profuse bleeding, decreased visual function. The pain can descend to the neck area, provoke muscle spasms and vascular clamps, which impede blood flow - this is fraught with the occurrence of oxygen starvation of the brain.

Classification of jaw displacement

Why does a dislocation of the jaw occur and how to help the victim?

Subluxation should be considered separately - this is a condition when the ends of the bones do not fully touch. In this case, the mouth closes, the symptoms do not appear sharply.

Most often, the joints relative to the temporal bone are displaced from both sides at once, and therefore the mouth does not completely close.

But sometimes it also occurs unilateral dislocation, when it is clearly visible displacement of the chin to one side.

Correct the dislocation

If a dislocation of the jaw appears, it is advisable to turn to official medicine. The doctor will choose the reduction method based on the clinical picture.

The Blekhman-Gershuni method. The jaw is adjusted from the outside or from the inside. Reduction from the side of the oral cavity. The traumatologist gropes for the displaced coronal processes and presses them up and back. Reduction outside. The same processes are felt in the area of ​​the cheekbones near the cheeks, fingers are placed on these protrusions, and the movement is carried out - back and down. When the articular head hits the hole, a characteristic click is heard.

This method is easy to master on your own, but more often the jaw is set in a different way - the Hippocrates method.

Why does a dislocation of the jaw occur and how to help the victim?
  • The patient is seated on a chair facing the doctor - the back of the patient's head rests on a support;
  • The lower jaw should be at the level of the doctor's elbow, when the hand is down;
  • Thumbs are wrapped with cloth to exclude the possibility of injury and they are placed on the molars - their chewing surfaces;
  • The rest of the fingers cover the chin from below;
  • Moving down and back, lifting the chin, the jaw is put in place. The articular head slides along the slope of the articular tubercle and enters into place.

While mastering the skill of how to set the jaw on your own, you need to learn how to quickly move the fingers from the molars to the inner surface of the cheeks - otherwise they will bite. If the joint flew out of the temporal fossa on only one side, you have to open your mouth completely, but the pressure is one-sided.

Actions must be performed slowly and confidently, otherwise it is impossible to achieve a positive result, and the ligaments will stretch even more.

Does it hurt to set your jaw? Yes. In some cases, anesthesia is necessary for the patient and urgent help from the doctor - if the teeth close before the fingers are removed.

Treatment of jaw dislocation

Treatment of the jaw by repositioning the joint does not end ... For 10-14 days, a bandage must be applied to avoid relapse of the condition. You have to give up solid food for a while. The Popescu method is used to treat chronic dislocation under full anesthesia. The patient is placed on his back, horizontally, rolls of bandages are inserted into the mouth, expanding the opening to 1.5-2 cm.Only then the doctor makes the necessary movements to place the joint in place.

If on the spot after an accident or injury it is impossible to correct the dislocation, the jaw needs to be fixed in one position and urgentlytake the victim to the hospital. Old or habitual dislocations are treated with orthodontic structures - removable or non-removable splints. They restrict the movement of the jaw and prevent the mouth from moving until the ligaments become shorter.

Why does a dislocation of the jaw occur and how to help the victim?

Constructions have to be worn from 21 days to a month, if removed earlier, then the dislocation recurs and the jaw will move from its place - the articular surfaces of the lower jaw will come out of the temporal cavity. The temporal fossa is not deepened - such operations have been tried, but they have not been effective.

To relieve swelling and reduce pain after repositioning the dislocation, you can take non-steroidal painkillers for several days.

take into account that these drugs act aggressively on the mucous membrane of the digestive organs, so you should not use them for more than 1-2 days. For erosive diseases of the stomach - peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis - anesthetics should be used as a pain reliever.

Good health and well-being!